Cancer as a developmental disease


Cancer as a developmental disease
Cancer as a developmental disease

The concept of cancer as a developmental disease refers to the idea that some of the same processes that govern normal embryonic development are co-opted or misregulated in cancer. During development, cells undergo a series of tightly controlled processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and programmed cell death. These processes are regulated by a combination of signaling pathways, transcription factors, and epigenetic mechanisms. When these processes go awry, it can lead to tumorigenesis or the formation of cancer.


Several lines of evidence support the notion of cancer as a developmental disease:


Tissue Development and Tumor Formation: Some tissues that undergo extensive remodeling during development, such as the breast or prostate, are also sites of common tumors in adulthood.


Stem Cells and Cancer: The idea of cancer stem cells proposes that within tumors, a subset of cells retains the self-renewal properties of stem cells and is primarily responsible for tumor initiation and growth. This parallels the role of normal stem cells during development.


Signaling Pathways: Many signaling pathways that are critical for embryonic development, such as the Wnt, Notch, and Hedgehog pathways, are found to be misregulated in various cancers.


Transcription Factors: Several transcription factors essential for developmental processes are also implicated in cancer when they are aberrantly expressed or regulated. For example, the MYC transcription factor, which plays roles in both normal development and cancer.


Epigenetic Regulation: Epigenetic changes, which involve modifications to DNA or histones that can influence gene expression without altering the DNA sequence, are crucial in both development and cancer.


Reactivation of Embryonic Programs: Some cancers reactivate cellular programs that are typically only active during embryonic development. An example is the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), where epithelial cells acquire characteristics of mesenchymal cells. EMT is crucial for certain developmental processes but is also a hallmark of many aggressive cancers, facilitating tumor invasion and metastasis.


Understanding cancer as a misregulation or hijacking of developmental processes has therapeutic implications. By targeting the specific pathways or processes that tumors co-opt from normal developmental programs, novel treatments can be developed. However, because these pathways are also essential for normal cellular function, achieving therapeutic specificity (i.e., targeting the tumor without harming normal cells) can be challenging.


In conclusion, viewing cancer through the lens of developmental biology offers a deeper understanding of the disease's origins and progression. While not all cancers can be straightforwardly linked to developmental processes, the intersections between development and cancer are significant and represent a fruitful area of research.

 

Neuroscience 2023 and Artificial Intelligence

Neuroscience 2023 Artificial Intelligence

Neuroscience Meeting 2023 SBNeC - Summary of selected neuroscientific topics
(generated by ChatGPT):

Homeostasis Perception and Emotion in Panic

Antropologia Amerindia América Latina

Newborn Behavioral Observation

"Muscle matters: from human disease to human performance"

Transgenerational memories of trauma - epigenetic, physiological and mental health factors

Efeito de Realidade Virtual e Gamificação no Aprendizado

Vida moderna, Ritmos Biológicos, Sono, Homeostasia Fisiológica e Processos Cognitivos

Long-term cognitive and emotional impairments associated to hypercholesterolemia

Short- and long-term effects of ethanol on astrocyte functioning

Caffeine effects on brain development

Obesidade do neurodesenvolvimento ao envelhecimento

Repercussões fisiológicas e celulares da exposição aos pesticidas em períodos críticos do desenvolvimento

Distúrbios do Crescimento Celular

Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Nutrition

Endocrine Disruptors

Cancer as a developmental disease

Scientific Question and Experimental Design

Scientific Research Integrity

Neuroscience of Obesity

Epilepsy Neuroscience and Perception

The Liver-Brain axis

A fisiologia do feminino

Active Learning to Improve Engagement

The molecular basis of Exercise-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis

Neurochemical Underpinnings of Psychedelic-Induced Ego Dissolution

Recent advances in the neuroendocrine control of hydromineral homeostasis

Psychoneuroimmunology Immunoneuroendocrine interactions

Aproveitando a natureza dinâmica da memória para eliminar experiências traumáticas

Acerca da modificação de memórias episódicas

The biological response of ayahuasca

LSD and creativity

Variabilidade da frequência cardíaca como marcador da integração neurovisceral

Inteligência artificial, psicodélicos, e saúde mental

Efeitos do isolamento social e do enriquecimento ambiental na plasticidade do sistema nervoso

Neurociências e Educação: Reflexões sobre o Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH)

Cellular and molecular networks underlying psychiatric disorders

NEUROCIÊNCIAS E EDUCAÇÃO: PRÁTICAS BASEADAS EM EVIDÊNCIAS

O que sabemos hoje sobre as expressões faciais na psicopatia?

Aspectos Funcionais e Estruturais da Interação Glia-Neurônio

As bases neurobiológicas da aprendizagem e memória

Buscar formas de otimizar: Efeitos do exercício físico e do exercício cognitivo frente à déficits de memória

O uso de jogos educacionais como estratégia de aprendizagem ativa

Processamento cerebral implícito - a construção de estereótipos

Neuroimagem funcional aplicada ao comportamento humano

O cérebro em tarefas cognitivas e no estado de repouso. Introdução à conectividade funcional

Neurociências e Comportamento Motor

Possível relação entre desenvolvimento motor e o desenvolvimento cognitivo e o desempenho acadêmico do indivíduo

Práticas reprodutíveis em neurociência

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Autor: Jackson Cionek